Foundations of America

QU201 Prof. Scott Leone

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size
Home A Different Mirror

Takaki Timeline

An extensive timeline of Takaki's A Different Mirror.

Pg Chapter Subsection Notes # Begin Date End Date Description (25 word Max)
7         1947 separate but equal was the issue; present day is the separation of many Americas.
7 1 The Making of Multicultural America     1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act- Limited entry of immigrants based on nationality
9 1 The Making of Multicultural America     1947 Jackie Robinson on New York Dodgers
9 1 The Making of Multicultural America     1964 Freedom Summer
9 1 The Making of Multicultural America   1846 1848 War against Mexico
10 1 The Making of Multicultural America     9/11/2001 World Trade Center Attacks
11 1 The Making of Multicultural America     1801 Jefferson wrote to madison stating that soon the American continent would be made up of people speakign the same language, governed by the same laws.
12 1 The Making of Multicultural America     1900 US was manufacturing more goods than England and France combined
13 1 The Making of Multicultural America     1903 Mexican and Japanese farmers went on strike in California against the Unions
15 1 The Making of Multicultural America 25   1861 Lincoln's first Innaugural Address.Addressed the looming southern secession
15 1 The Making of Multicultural America     Spring 1863 Lincoln allowed African Americans to enlist in Union Army
16 1 The Making of Multicultural America 31   1/31/1942 James G Thompson- Letter to Pittsburg Courier
17 1 The Making of Multicultural America 34   1790 Naturalization Law
17 1 The Making of Multicultural America 35   1963 March on Washington- Martin Luther King Jr.
18 1 The Making of Multicultural America     1988 Congress passed a bill that provided a payment of 20,000 to each Japanese American survivor of WWII
29 2 English Over Irish   1596 1596 Edmund Spense claimed "They are all Papists by their profession"
29 2 English Over Irish   1596 1596 All English colonizers establisheda two-tiered social structure.
30 2 English Over Irish   n/a n/a four years of warfare in Munster- very high death rates
30 2 Engliah Over Indian     March 8th, 1610 The conquest of Irelnad and the seetlement of Virginia were bound closely together
32 2 English Over Indian     1609 the book A true Reportory of the Wracke was published
32 2 Engliah Over Indian     1611 According to Shakespear a native of New England called Epenew
33 2 English Over Indian     1606 The Virginia Company used propoganda to spread Christian Religion to people
34 2 Virginia: To "Root Out" Indians as a people     1609 The Virginia Company in London instucted the colon's governor to encourage missionaries to covert Indian children
34 2 Virginia: To "Root Out" Indians as a people     1607 The first 120 colonizers set up camp
35 2 Virginia: To "Root Out" Indians as a people     1608 Out of the 120 colonizers who set up camp only 38 were still alive
35 2 Virginia: To "Root Out" Indians as a people     1608 several hundred more settlers arrived and quickly died
35 2 Virginia: To "Root Out" Indians as a people     1608 An Indian declared, " We hear you come from under the World to take out World from us."
35 2 Virgina: to "Root out" Indians as a people     1609 Governor Thomas Gates arrived in Virginiaw ith instructions to force Indians to work
36 2 Virgina: to "Root out" Indians as a people   1618 1623 "The Great Migration"- the colony gew from 400 to 4500 people
36 2 Virgina: to "Root out" Indians as a people     1622 Natives tried to drive out the intruders, killing some three hundred colonizers
37 2 Virgina: to "Root out" Indians as a people     1629 the English forced a hostile Indian leader to seek peace by "Continual incursions" and by "yearly cutting down and spoiling their corn"
37 2 New England: The "Utter Extirpation" of Indians     1616 Captain John Smith sailed north from Virginia to explore the New England coast, where he found not wild men but farmers
39 2 New England: The utter extirpation of Indians   1616 1916 epidemics for Indians, ravaging villages
39 2 New England: The utter extirpation of Indians     1620 William Bradford lands in Plymouth
41 2 New England: The utter extirpation of Indians   1675 1676 King Phillips war,, Wampanoag leader is KP, aka Metacom. Attack on English.
44 2 Stolen Lands: a world turned "upside down"     1789 Petition to the Assembly of Connecticut, by Mohegans, stating how times have changed, their world is different, worse.
45 2 Stolen Lands: a world turned "upside down"     1776 Jefferson writes to colleague advocating removal and destroying hostile Indians
47 2 Stolen Lands: a world turned "upside down"     2/27/1803 Jefferson letter to Indiana governor explaining plan to put Indians in debt to gain lands when unable to pay debts
49 3 The Hidden Origins of Slavery 1   1611 Theatergoers enjoy watching The Tempest in London.
49 3 The Hidden Origins of Slavery     1554 Five African Americans were taken to England until they could speak the language, and then they were taken back to Africa
49 3 The Hidden Origins of Slavery     1578 Voyager George Best talks about Ethiopians and English women
49 3 The Hidden Origins of Slavery 2   1968 Winthrop Jordan writes White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812
50 3 The Hidden Origins of Slavery   1560 1570 An English traveler writes about his take on African Americans' color
50 3 The Hidden Origins of Slavery 3 1560 1570 The English thought of the color black as negative and dirty and the color white as positive and pure
50 3 The Hidden Origins of Slavery 4   1611 African Americans were said to be cannibals in The Tempest
50 3 The Hidden Origins of Slavery 5   1611 Prospero, the protagonist, raised his mind or rationality to authority over his instinctual life in The Tempest
51 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 7   1611 When The Tempest first performed, there were no Africans in Virignia
51 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1613 The colony sent its first shipment of four barrels of tobacco to London
51 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1616 The exports grew to 2,300 pounds
51 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1617 The exports grew to 19,000 pounds
51 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1620 The exports grew to 60,000 pounds
51 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 8   1619 John Rolfe wrote about a momentous event in the history of the English New World in his diary
52 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1619 Virginia had no law legalizing slavery, so Africans were sold as indentured servants
52 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 11   1660 There were 20,000 Africans in Virginia by this time
52 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 11   1650 There were only 300 Africans in Virginia, or 2% of its population
52 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 11   1675 There were 1,600 Africans in Virginia by this time, or 5% of its population
53 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together   1601 1700 75% of the colonists came to Virginia as servants
53 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 12   1664 The Council of Foreign Plantations said that Virginia's population had been increased due to servants
54 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 17   1630 Virginia court decides Hugh Davis should be whipped for sleeping with a negro
54 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 17   1640 Virginia court punishes a white man and black woman for having relations
54 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 17   1649 William Watts, a white man, and Mary, a black servant, are punished for fornication
54 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 17   1650 A white man and black woman accused of having relations were required to wear white sheets in front of a congregation
54 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 17   1667 John Dorman, an Irish servant, is convicted of getting a Negro woman with child
54 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 17 1690 1698 Fourteen white women in Westmoreland County were punished for having illegitimate children
55 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1640 Virignia legislature passed a law saying that masters should furnish arms to all men except negros
55 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 18   1640 Three runaway servants were captured and returned and each given thirty lashes, but the black servant received more severe punishment
55 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 18   1640 Six white men and a black man were arrested for running away, and the black man was told he had to be a slave for life
55 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 19   11/13/1643 The inventory of the estate of William Burdett showed how Africans were becoming servants for life
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1642 Thomas Jacob transferred a negro woman and made her seem like property
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1644 A man borrowed money from another man and provided as collateral another negro
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1646 Francis Pott sold a Negro woman and boy to Stephen Carlton to use him forever
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1648 A deed included a provision for a Negro woman and all her increase
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1652 A Negro girl was sold to someone "and his heirs…forever with all her increase both male and female"
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1645 Ralph Wormeley presented a certificate in court of a gift to someone including four Negro men and two women
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 20 1650 1659 70 percent of the blacks in Virginia were serving as de facto slaves
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 21   1661 The Virginia Assembly started to institutionalize slavery, and they were required to serve for life
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together 21   1669 The Virginia legislature defined a slave as property
56 3 A View from the Cabins: Black and White Together     1670 After this point, there was a decrease in the number of indentured servants coming to Virginia
58 3 English and Negroes in Armes: Bacon's Rebellion     1649 William Bullock warned planters about men and women who became dejected after not finding what was promised
58 3 English and Negroes in Armes: Bacon's Rebellion   1660 1665 Indentured servant Isaac Friend led a conspiracy to get 40 servants together to "get Arms"
58 3 English and Negroes in Armes: Bacon's Rebellion     1663 A Gloucester court accused 9 laborers of conspiring to overthrow the Virginia government and sentenced them for execution
59 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1670 1670 The Virginia legislature restricted suffrage to landowners fearing the unruliness of the landless class
59 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1673 1673 Governer Berkeley of Virginia raises troops to defend the colony from Dutch Warships
59 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1676 1676 Nathanial Bacon, a planter, raises an army of servants and revolts
60 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1681 1681 Planters continued to harbor fears of class disorders and urged the King to keep his royal soldiers in Viriginia
61 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1662 1662 Legislature declares that "black children who are born in Virginia should be free or slave according to the condition of mother
61 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1675 1675 African's make up 5% of the colony's population
61 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1680 1680 The legislature enacted laws that denied slaves freedom of assembly and movement
61 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1691 1691 A new law prohibited the"abominable mixture and spurious issue" of interracial unions
61 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1715 1715 African's make up 25% of the colony's population
61 3 "English and Negroes in Arms": Bacon's Rebellion   1750 1750 African's make up 40% of the colony's population
62 3 White Over Black   1788 1788 Jefferson recommends the gradual abolition of slavery in his Notes On the States of Virginia
62 3 White Over Black   1805 1805 Thomas Jefferson informed John Jordan that we was willing to purchase willing African slaves
62 3 White Over Black   1822 1822 Jefferson owned more than 267 slaves
63 3 White Over Black     July 30, 1787 Jefferson expresses guilt of owning slaves in a letter to his brother in law, Francis Eppes
65 3 White Over Black   1773 1773 A young black writer, Phillis Wheatley published her book: Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral
66 3 White Over Black     8/19/1791 A free black mathmatician, named Benjamin Banneker, sent Thomas Jefferson a copy of the almanac he had compiled in order to challenge Jefferson's opion of black inferiority
67 3 White Over Black     8/30/1791 Jefferson wrote back to Banneker, but not taking him seriously
68 3 White Over Black   1802 1802 Jefferson had supposedly an affair with an "black" woman, named Sally, and had a son from her writes the Richmond Recorder.
68 3 White Over Black   1802 1802 Richmond Examiner dares James Callendar of Richmond Recorder to prove his convictions
70 3 The Hidden Origins Of Slavery     1784 Recently widowed Jefferson (41) goes to Paris with daughter Patsy (21) as special minister of the new republic
70 3 The Hidden Origins Of Slavery     1787 Jefferson's other daughter, Polly (8), joins them in Paris along with servant, Sally Hemmings (15)
70 3 The Hidden Origins Of Slavery     06/25/1787 Abigail Adams meets the sea captain who had brought Polly across the Atlantic
70 3 The Hidden Origins Of Slavery     1789 Jefferson wanted Sally Hemmings to return back with him to VA
70 3 The Hidden Origins Of Slavery     1790? Sally Hemmings accepts Jefferson's conditions of going back to Virginia, has his baby, and dies shortly after
70 3 The Hidden Origins Of Slavery     1998 DNA evidence validates Madison Hemingway's story
71 3 The Hidden Origins Of Slavery     1793 Jefferson writes to James Monroe about slave revolt in Santo Domingo
71 3 The Hidden Origins Of Slavery     1797 Jefferson confesses to a friend about how there needs to be a plan for emancipation and removal
71 3 The Hidden Origins Of Slavery     1800 An attempted slave revolt takes a place and scares Jefferson
75 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom     1787 A provision in the Consitution had been writen stating slavery was legal
75 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom     1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which processed short-staple cotton
75 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom     1800 Slavery became very profitable
76 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom     1800 US population-6 million, Urban population-320,000
76 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom     1860 The total value on manufactured goods in th East was at least 2 times greater than that compared in the South and West combined
76 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom     1860 The West shipped 1 million barrels of flour and 31 million barrels of grain to the East and almost $200 million of produce to the South
76 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom     early 1800s The shipping boom enables merchants to accumulate capital to invest in manufacturing ventures
76 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom   1815 1860 Networks of turnpikes, canals, and railroads revolutionized transportation;freight charges for shipments on land was reduced by 95%
77 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom   1833 1860 Indian Land Sales and Cottom Production: refer to pg 77
78 Part Two The Rise Of The Cotton Kingdom   1814 1824 11 treaties of cession were negotiated with the Indian tribes
79 4 Part 2 Borders page 443 1790 1795 Congress enacted the Naturalization Act of 1790- this act provided rules to be followed by the United States while granting national citizenship. This law limited naturalization to immigrants who were "free white persons" of "good moral character." This law left indentured servants, slaves, free blacks, and Asians out. Citizenship was inherited through the father.
81 4 Part 2 Borders page 443 1800 late 1800s ? US population of 6 million- of whichonly 320,000 were listed as urban
81 4 Part 2 Borders page 443 1860 1860 The economy had been transformed. Advances in transportation such as the steamboat and the railroad now linked the East, the West and the South.
81 4 Part 2 Borders page 443 1816 1860 Cotton was the country’s most valued export
81 4 Part 2 Borders page 443 1800 late 1800s ? Shipping boom-enabled merchants (such as Francis Lowell) to accumulate capital to invest in manufacturing ventures
82 4 Part 2 Borders page 443 1814 1824 Eleven treaties of cession were negotiated with the tribes. From these agreements, the United States acquired millions of acres of land.
84 4 Toward the Stony Mountains page 443 Feb. 16 1803 1803 President Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to a political leader in Tennessee regarding federal policies toward Indians.
84 4 Toward the Stony Mountains page 443 1787 1787 Jackson moved from North Carolina to Nashville- he practiced law, opened stores, and engaged in land speculation (land originally belonged to Indians)
85 4 Toward the Stony Mountains page 444 1814 1814 Jackson raged in letters to Major General Thomas Pinckney.
86 4 Toward the Stony Mountains page 444 1828 1837 Jackson was elected to the Presidency of the United States. Jackson supported efferts of Mississippi and Georgia to abolish Indian tribal units and extend state authority over Indians.
86 4 Toward the Stony Mountains page 444 1802 March 30, 1802 Indian Trade and Intercourse Act- provided that no land cessions could be made except by treaty with a tribe.
86 4 Toward the Stony Mountains page 444 1832 1832 Supreme Court ruled that states could not legally extend their jurisdictionin Indian territory, Jackson refused to enforce the court’s decision.
87 4 The trail Of Tears: The Cherokees 25   1829 In 1829 the georgia legislator passed a law that gave the state more power over Cherokee nation, giving the natives the choice to leave or surrender their rights.
87 4 The trail Of Tears: The Cherokees 26   Febuary 6, 1834 Chief Ross wrote to the Secretaryof War, Lewis Cass to condem Georgias actions because it gave Georgia citizens the right to commit violence against the indians.
88 4 The trail Of Tears: The Cherokees 27   March 14, 1835 A treaty was signed in 1835 that removed the Cherokees from their land for $3,250,000.
88 4 Toward the Stony Mountains page 444 1805 1830? Choctaw Treaty- the federal government had reserved certain tracts of land for individual Choctaws.
89 4 The trail Of Tears: The Cherokees 30   spring of 1838 Chief Ross protested agaisnt the treaty with a petition signed by 15,665 Cherokees, but it was dismissed.
90 4 The trail Of Tears: The Cherokees 31-33 1830 1840 from the time that the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was passed 46,000 Natives would walk the trail of tears. Many would die on the trail
91 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 35-40 no dates   the indians were hunters and agriculturalists that never let anything go to waste and they saw the wite men as a swarm of locusts.
93 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 41 1830 1845 The Pawnee indian's population was reduced from 10,000 to 4,000 because of diseases like smallpox from the fur trade.
93 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 42 1830 1860 between this time period the United states went from 73 miles of track to 3,328 in 1840. by 1860 there was more miles of railroad track then in all of Europe.
93 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 42   1831 President andrew Jackson praised science for what he considerd the next step in human civilization: the Railroad
94 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 44   1867 a writer for The Nation called for a solution to the native American "problem", his soulutions being intergration or extermination.
94 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 46   1869 the Transcontinental railroad is finished and many claim that it will completely revolutionize the American way of life, which it does.
95 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 47   1871 Because rail road companys saw indians an obstacle they pushed for the passage of the 1871 Indian Appropriation Act.
95 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 47   1871 the Act was passed and it declared that no indian nation or tribe would be recognized as an independent Nation.
96 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 50   1873 A Pawnee hunting party was massacred by the Sioux. This stunned the indians and made some of them decide to head for the safety of a reservation.
97 4 American Progress: Civilization Over Savagery 53   1873 John Gast creates the painting American Progress depicting the tension between the indians and the transcontinental railroad.
109 5 Was "Sambo" Real? 26, 27, 28 January 1, 1832 December 25, 1832 Slaves on the plantation would lie about being sick to avoid work whereas slaves in southern cities worked in textile mills through the hiring out process
110 5 Was "Sambo" Real? 29, 30, 31 April 1861 1861 White southerners did not want "hired out" slaves taking their jobs in the cities. The Union soldiers weakened the slavery system.
111 5 Was "Sambo" Real? 32, 33, 34 1861 1861 Since the Union soldiers were so close slaves became anxious for their arrival and the freedom that was sure to follow.
112 5 Was "Sambo" Real? 35, 36 1863 1863 Slaves pretended that they did not know what it meant to be free and asked their masters if they would be killed.Many slaves ran away, especially the women.
113 5 Frederick Douglass: Son of His Master 37, 38, 39 1818 1825 Slave women were more likely to run to escape from their masters who raped them.The children from master slave relations were called mulatto, like Frederick Douglass.
114 5 Frederick Douglass: Son of His Master 40, 41, 42 1830 1830 Frederick Douglass's masters wife taught him how to read until her husband yelled at her. However she was still sympathetic and when he was hurt she nursed him.
115 5 Frederick Douglass: Son of His Master 43, 44, 45 1834 1834 Douglass continued to learn from working in the city so his master brought him back to the plantation to have his spirit broken by Covey.
116 5 Frederick Douglass: Son of His Master 46, 47, 48 1847 1859 He fought against Covey after refusing to be whipped.Frederick later joined forces with John Brown in a movement to abolish slavery.
117 5 Frederick Douglass: Son of His Master 49, 50, 51 1859 1859 Douglass never really knew for sure when he was born or who his father was though he suspected his master Auld.After running away he assured Auld that he ran away from slavery, not Auld.
118 5 Martin Delany: Father of Black Nationalism 52, 53, 54 1886 1840s Douglass opposed the black emmigration saying the slaves wereAmericans wereas Martin Delany agreed with the movement.
119 5 Martin Delany: Father of Black Nationalism     1850 Delaney was admitted into Harvard Medical School. However, the White Students protested and the faculty sucessfully blocked his enrollment.
120 5 Martin Delany: Father of Black Nationalism     1859 Delaney visited Africa to secure a land grant for African Americans in the Niger Valley
123 5 Tell Linkum Dat We Wants Land     1865 General William Sheman assembles 20 black leaders to ask if there should be an integrated or segregated South
124 5 Tell Linkum Dat We Wants Land     1864 Sherman issues Special Field Order 15 granting serving Blacks temporary property rights in the South
127 5 Tell Linkum Dat We Wants Land     1895 Atlanta Expedition is put on showing off industrial advances of the South and entirely black mechanical works
128 5 Tell Linkum Dat We Wants Land   1894 1895 Booker T. Washington speaks at Atlanta Expedition, thereby becoming the unofficial leading voice in Black politics
128 5 Tell Linkum Dat We Wants Land     1877 After cut wages and the controversial election of 1876 Railroad workers strike. Local militias and federal troops put down the strike 44 days later.
128 5 Tell Linkum Dat We Wants Land     05/4/1885 Maymarket Massacre: Unions in Chicago protest but Anarchists kill police officers which causes chaos and the deaths of an unknown number of civilians.
128 5 Tell Linkum Dat We Wants Land     1892 Homestead Strike: Steelworkers strike, but are ultimately defeated by Carnagie setting back the unionization of steel workers.
128 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1859   Delany visited Africa to secure a land grant for the settlement of American blacks in Niger Valley
131 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1865   General Sherman asked 20 black leaders whether they preferred to live amongst whites or themselves
133 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1864   General Sherman completed his march to the sea ; issued Special Field Order #15, setting aside large sections of the south for distribution to black people
135 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1860   Southern pig-iron production had surpassed the total output of the entire country
135 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1860 1890 the number of spindles had jumped from 600,000 to 175,000,000
135 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1870   Jefferson County, home of Birmingham, had only 22 factories around this time
135 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1880 1900 the number of textile mills jumped from 161 to 400
135 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1890   6% of total black work force was employed in manufactoring
135 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1910   black male workers occupations increased two-thirds
136 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1880 1910 41% of Birmingham's industrial workers were black, 30 yrs later blacks made up 39% of all steel workers in the south
136 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1883   white workers stuck at Chattanooga & Knoxville iron companies
136 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1895   Atlanta Exposition
138 5 No More Peck O'Corn   1896   ruling of Plessy v. Feruson, Supreme Court upheld constitutionality of segregation
139 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 469-20 1854 1880 This is when the "Yankees" did extensive labor. Newspapers were reporting accidents, the Irish miners were working in the mines and had "black lungs." Irish labors were nothing more than dogs at this time.
139 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 468-8 1855 1856 Charles Dickens visited the United States- He was disappointed with what he found. He thought he would find gold along the streets, instead all he found were bums.
140 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 470-36 1870 1871 In New England, Irish workers had the lowest wages in the shoemaking industry. The Crispin's went on strike. Calvin Sampson fired the workers and brought the Chinese to work there.
140 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 469-24 1870 1871 Chinese worked throughout holidays, Sundays and Mondays. "Irish immigrants were soon compared to blacks" and were fired because of laziness.
142 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 469-28 1830 1830 Philadelphia newspaper said that "the Irish were displacing black as hackney coachmen, draymen and stevedores."
142 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 469-30 1842 1842 Irish signed a petition wanting equality. It disappeared after the black slaves "disappeared with the Atlantic crossing."
144 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 469-28 1860 1865 During Civil War the Irish were warned by the Democrats. The Democrats said that if they vote "against Lincoln, you will have negro labor dragging you form your free labor."
144 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 469-32 7/1863 1865 "Mass meeting in NYC protested the law's provision that allowed a draftee to avoid military service by paying $300."
145 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 469-19 1815 1830 Farmers land was given to only one son. Therefore, the other sons without land failed to marry and start a family due to the fact they were very, very poor.
145 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 469-32 1830 1850 The servants' in NYC were all African American.
145 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 468-4 1850 1854 Servants' were Irish women and daughters of farmers of the Irish were maids.
145 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 468-14 1860 1870 Number of Irish women in NYC were more than the Irish men.
145 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 469-34 1860 1865 Irish hate towards blacks was thehighest.
147 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 468-5 1850 1859 Irish immigrant women were among the highest percentage of all female household workers in NYC.
147 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 470-51 1900   "54% of Irish women were classified as servants and waitresses" while only 9% for women of Italian heritage.
147 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 470-38 1905 1906 "More than two-fifths of the immigrant women who entered the city became servants and were almost all Irish."
148 6 Fleeing the Tyrant's Heel 470-35 1920 1930 Stephen Steinberg (a sociologist who lives to this day) was involved with Jewish-American crime.
159 7 THE WAR AGAINST MEXICO   1542 1769 Believing that Asia was close to California, Juan Cabrillo sailed along its cost looking for a place to settle.
159 7 THE WAR AGAINST MEXICO   JUNE 6, 1846 FEBRUARY 2, 1848 The war against mexico reached California in 1846.Mexicos army, led by Mariano Vallejo, was met by an army of Americans looking to wrest California from Mexico and establish the "Bear Flag Republic."
160 7 THE WAR AGAINST MEXICO   1769 1810 The Spanish colonization of California began and spread northward to cities we know now as Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Francisco, and Sonoma.
160 7 THE WAR AGAINST MEXICO   1810 1821 California failed to attract Mexican settlers and the population fell to only 3000.Meanwhile, the Spanish empire was overthrown and Mexico became an independent country.
161 7 THE WAR AGAINST MEXICO   1840 1848 Driven by their dreams of weath and land ownership, Americans entered the Mexican territory.
163 7 THE WAR AGAINST MEXICO   February 2, 1848   The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed.Mexico accepted the Rio Grande River as the Texas border and ceded the Southwest territories to the U.S. for 15 million.
163 7 THE WAR AGAINST MEXICO   1845 1848 The belief in "manifest destiny," began to spread through the U.S.Now, more than ever, the belief in American Anglo Saxon superiority was recognized.
165 7 ANGLO OVER MEXICAN   1848 1849 Gold was discovered near John Sutters mill.This ignited a huge migration to California. By 1849, the Anglo population reached one hundred thousand to thirteen thousand mexicans.
165 7 ANGLO OVER MEXICAN   1850   The foreign miners tax we created.This was actually a mexican miners act because it was only enforced against spanish speaking miners.Even mexicans who were american citizens were affected.
166 7 ANGLO OVER MEXICAN   1804 1920 Mexicans began to lose their place in politics in California.By 1920 only 3 percent of mexicans were registered voters.
167 7 ANGLO OVER MEXICAN   1891 1893 The Court of Pricate Land Claims was created and run by mostly Anglos.Mexicans put in claims for 33 millions acres of land but were only granted 2 million.Anglos now owned 4/5ths of Mexican land grants.
169 7 ANGLO OVER MEXICAN   1891 1901 Mexican Ranchers felt the affect of the Anglo takeover.When the cattle industry in California declined, they lacked the financial stability to switch to agriculture.
179 8 Pioneers From Asia   1849 1852 The Chinese Migrants joined the "Forty Niners" that were rushing California. The number of people coming increased each year.
179 8 Pioneers From Asia   1860's 1860's Chinese migrants immigrated to America because the pay was better. They went from making $3-$5 dollars a month in China to about $30 a month in America.
180 8 Pioneers From Asia   1852 1852 A miners tax was created stated that each foreign miner pay $3 a month if they did not want to be a citizen
180 8 Pioneers From Asia 10 & 11 Feb. 1865 1869 Chinese workers were hired to help build the Central Pacfic Railroad, which ended up being a Chinese achievment and saving money for the company.
180 8 Pioneers From Asia 13   spring 1867 Chinese workers went on strike declaring that they wanted fairer pay.
180 8 Pioneers From Asia     1870 By 1870 63,000 Chinese immigrants were living in the U.S- 77% of them in California
183 8 Pioneers From Asia 17   1869 Writer for Overland Monthly wrote how Chinese miners made the land more valuable and nicer
184 8 Pioneers From Asia     1880 fruit pickers in Santa Clara County, California went on strike, demanding higher wages similar to the railroad workers.
184 8 Pioneers From Asia     May 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act – a way tono longer allow Chinese immigrants to come into the U.S because there was such an iflux of them.
185 8 Pioneers From Asia     1890 There were 6400 laundry workers in California during this year making up 69% of all laundry workers.
186 8 Pioneers From Asia 28   1871 Orleans Times reported that Chinese preferred working in the city as opposed to on plantation fields.
188 8 Pioneers From Asia 33 1878 1878 Chinese began to be discriminated.At the time having laws similar to African Americans. They were discussed at the California Constitution Convention as being “most vile.”
189 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1854 1854 Discusses the Supreme Coeaurt case People v. Hall which established Chinese Americans and immigrants had no rights to testify against white citizens.
189 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1879 1879 President Rutherford Hayes warned Americans about the "Chinese Problem", he discouraged the Chinese immigration to America.This led to the Chinese Exclusionary Act of 1882 which prohibited entry of Chinese laboreres.The President also denied naturalized citizenship to the Chinese already in the country.
189 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1880 1880 Chinese constituted a mere .002% of the U.S. population
190 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  July 14, 1877 September, 1877 Railroad Strike caused many Americans to be thrown out of work.The entire country went into an economic crisis due to the enormous expansion followed by painful contractions.
190 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1892 1902 Chinese Exclusion Act was renewed in 1892 to include officials, teachers, students, tourists, and merchants and was extended in definitely in 1902.
190 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1855 1855 Yong Chan applied for citizenship in San Francisco's federal district court.Although his appearance was more "white" than most Chinese, the court ruled that no matter what, the Chinese would not be considered "white" in the eyes of the law.The court cited the 1790 law of citizenship.
190 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1870 1870 Chinese successfully lobbied Congress to include protections for them in the 1870 Civil Rights Act, which declared that "all personsshall have the same right to "make and enforce" contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws"
191 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1852 1900 Population of Chinese women in California rose from 7-4,522
192 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1875 1875 Federal immigration policies were enacted to prohibit the entry of Chinese prostitutes and wives, Americans believed Chinese women and families threatened racial homogeneity.
192 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1893 1893 brothel owners would bring over Chinese women to work as prostitutes, many of whom became opium addicts.Disease, abuse and suicide were extremely prevalent for these women.
194 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1870 1870 Census showed 61% Chinese women listed their occupation as "prostitute".
196 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1860 1880 Chinese merchants, storekeepers and grocers increased their businesses 44%.In 1880 businesses included restaurant keepers, butchers, fish sellers and laundrymen.
196 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1852 1852 A secret society (tong) was founded in California to help and support Chinese acclimate to American society.
197 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
  1852 1852 First Chinese play at the American Theater in San Francisco.
199 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
58   1880's On Lung and Hay Ing come to America as sojourners.Owners of the Kam Wah Chung Sotre in John Day, Oregon
199 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
    1899 Lung's father sends him a letter, asking for him to return to him and his family, as their family was suffering
199 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
59   1903 Ing's father sends him a letter, saying he hasn't send any money/letters back to his family in 20 years.
199 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
    2-Mar-05 Lung sends a letter back to his family, stating he's fine and will return as soon as he has the money to return.
199 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
    4-Mar-05 Lung recieves a letter from his cousin, stating his mother is dead, his daughter has married and his father is immobile
200 8 Contradictions
Searching for Gold Mountain
    1900's Chinese immigrants are discriminated against for being "different" and there fore inferior.
201 8 Searching for Gold Mountain     18-Apr-06 An earthquake strikes San Francisco.The earthquake destroyed immigration records, allowing Chinese Immigrants to claim citizenship
201 8 Searching for Gold Mountain   1907' 1928 10,048 Chinese women immigrate from China
201 8 Searching for Gold Mountain     1930' Chinese women make up roughly 20% of the chinese population, which was a base for the forming of chinese-american families.
202 8 Searching for Gold Mountain     1922 Chinese Immigrants are brought to Angel Island, but not allowed to enter until they pass a citizenship test, despite being considered citizens
203 8 Searching for Gold Mountain     1943 Close to 50,000 chinese have entered America through Angel Island
204 8 Searching for Gold Mountain   1900 1940 The american-born chinese population grows from 11% to 52%
204 8 Searching for Gold Mountain     1940' 40% of all Chinese lived in either San Francisco or New York City
205 8 Searching for Gold Mountain     1932 Kit Kang Louis publishes "Problems of Second Generation Chinese", an essay discussing how two cultures effected the newest generation of chinese americans.
209 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   01/01/1815 01/01/1860 Value of american manufactured goods increases "eightfold"
209 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   1840 1840 Agricultural workers constitute 70% of labor force. Construction & Manufacturing trades constitute 15%.
209 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   1894 1894 Economic depression leaves 18% of labor force unemployed
210 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   07/14/1877 08/30/1877 Rail Road Strike
210 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire     1885 Best selling book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis by Reverend Josiah Strong. Discusses social class struggles in united states.
210 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   05/04/1886 05/04/1886 Haymarket Massacare of 1886
210 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   1890 1890 Admiral Alfred Thayer Mehan publishes The influence of Sea Power upon History. The book aimed at boosting funding for a "New Navy" and was sucessful in doing so.
210 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   06/30/1892 07/06/1892 The bloody Homestead Strike of 1892
212 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   1890 1890 Admiral Mehan's book is acknowledged by Theodore Roosevelt, a emerging political leader who is impressed by the work. The two meet and form a working relationship.
212 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   04/19/1897 05/10/1898 Roosevelt appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy
212 8 The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire   03/21/1898 8/12/1898 United States declares war on Spain
214 9 The Indian Question: From Reservation to Reorganization     12/20/1890 Agent at Pine Ridge reservation sends warning to Washington that the Indians were dancing in the snow and acting wild and crazy. Resulted in shooting and killing of indian chief
216 9 The Indian Question: From Reservation to Reorganization   1893 1893 Frederick Jackson Turner publishes his paper on signifigance of the frontier in American history
217 9 The Indian Question: From Reservation to Reorganization   12/5/1868 12/5/1868 Custer tracks Black Kettle's band of Cheyennes to the Washita River, and attacked the group at sunrise. Violent attack which resulted in capture and killing of many indians.
217 9 The Indian Question: From Reservation to Reorganization   6/25/1876 6/25/1876 Custer dies at Battle of the Little Big Horn in Montana territory
218 9 The Indian Question: From Reservation to Reorganization   1870 1879 Commissioner of Indian Affairs during the 1870's, Francis Amasa Walker suggested a "peace policy" in dealing with indians and avoid violent attacks.
221 9 Allotment and Assimilation     1887 Dawes Act was passed. Allowed the break uo of Indian reservations and accerlerating them to be citizens
223 9 Allotment and Assimilation   1886 1887 Railroads built through more indian lands. 6 grant for this construction made by Congress
223 9 Allotment and Assimilation     1891 Thomas Morgan calculated that Indian lant reduced to 17,400,000 acres
223 9 Allotment and Assimilation     1902 Congress passed a new law that required all alloteed lands be sold in auctions by heirs upon death of owner
223 9 Allotment and Assimilation     1942 Congress passed the Burke Act, nullified the Dawes Act
223 9 Allotment and Assimilation     1903 Government gained power to abrogate the provisions of an Indian treaty
224 9 Allotment and Assimilation     1933 Government discovered that half of Indians on reservations were landless
225 9 The Indian "New Deal": What Kind of a "Deal" Was It?     1934 John Collier devised the Indian Reorganization Act, which halted the allotment program
225 9 The Indian "New Deal": What Kind of a "Deal" Was It?     6/18/1934 Roosevelt signed the Indian Reorganization Act and allowed federal funding for tribes to purchase lands
227 9 The Indian "New Deal": What Kind of a "Deal" Was It?     1933 Collier noted that it was best for Navajos to reduce their stock due to overgrazing and land erosion
229 9 The Indian "New Deal": What Kinda of"Deal Was it" 33, 34 1933 1935 John Collier created the Stock Reduction Program, which ordered the Navajo Indians to reduce their sheep and goat stocks.
232 10 From Japan to the Land of "Money Trees" 1 1868 1912 Japan restored the Meiji emperor and established a strong centralized government in fear that America would try to colonize Japan.
233 10 From Japan to the Land of "Money Trees" 2,3 1885 1924 Thousands of Japanese immigrated to Hawaii and the United States with hopes of becoming rich
234 10 Picture Brides in America 3 1882 1905 The Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited Chinese "laborers" from entering the United States
234 10 Picture Brides in America 3 1907 1924 The Gentlemen's Agreement was an informal agreement between the United States and Japan whereby the U.S wouldn't impose restriction on Japanese immigration and students, and Japan would prevent emigration to the U.S.
234 10 Picture Brides in America 5,6 1907 1924 The picture bride system was similar to an arranged marriage. The bride and groom would exchange photogrpahs before the initial meeting.
237 10 Tears in the Canefields 7,8,9 1875 1900 The cultivated land in Hawaii multiplied and planters needed to find workers, so the planters turned to Japan
238 10 Tears in the Canefields 14 1903 1905 Korean laborers were imported to Hawaii after Japanese laborers demanded higher wages. The Korean labor supply was stopped after the Korean government prohibited emigration to Hawaii.
239 10 Pacific Crossings 16 1904 1915 Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association passed a resolution that restricted skilled positions to American citizens or those eligible for citizenship
240 10 Pacific Crossings 21 1915 1920 Laborers treated like cattle, called by number instead of name
241 10 Pacific Crossings 24 1915 1920 Workers did backbreaking work, hoeing weeds, harvesting cane
242 10 Pacific Crossings 27 1915 1920 Worked in extreme heat, despite protests against unfair labor conditions and strikes
243 10 Pacific Crossings 29   1909 Japanese Strike, manifesting against "blood unionism" strikers demand higher wages and equal pay for equal work regardless of ethnicity
244 10 Pacific Crossings 31 1909 1919 Japanese Federation of Labor and Fillipino Federation of Labor submitsdemands to Hawaiian sugar planters association
245 10 Pacific Crossings 32 1920   strikers form Hawaii Laborers Association, multiethnic
246 10 Pacific Crossings 36 Jul-14 Oct-14 strikers give up struggle, wages increased by 50 %
247 10 Pacific Crossings 39   1920 Hawaiian Sugar Planters association promotes development of family housing units
248 10 Pacific Crossings 43 1885 1924 Japanese immigrants established Buddhist temples and Japanese language schools
249 10 Pacific Crossings 249 1885 1924 Between these years, out of the 200,000 Japanese who entered Hawaii, only 55% went home.
249 10 Pacific Crossings 249 1920 1920 45% of Japanese in Hawaii were 19 years old and younger.
249 10 Pacific Crossings   1885 1924 Between these years, out of the 200,000 Japanese who entered Hawaii, only 55% went home.
249 10 Pacific Crossings 59 1920 1920 45% of Japanese in Hawaii were 19 years old and younger.
250 10 Pacific Crossings 250 1900 1900 Year Shokichi & Matsu Fukuda migrated to Hawaii, planning to leave for Japan in a few years.
250 10 Pacific Crossings 250 1920 1935 Mitsue Takaki came as a picture bride, husband injured knee, he returned to Japan but imigration did not allow him to come back to the US.
250 10 Pacific Crossings   1900 1900 Year Shokichi & Matsu Fukuda migrated to Hawaii, planning to leave for Japan in a few years.
250 10 Pacific Crossings 46 1920 1935 Mitsue Takaki came as a picture bride, husband injured knee, he returned to Japan but imigration did not allow him to come back to the US.
251 10 Pacific Crossings 251 1926 1926 Toshio Takaki studied photography, Honolulu City listed him as a finisher for the Honululu Photo Supply Comp.
251 10 Pacific Crossings 60 1926 1926 Toshio Takaki studied photography, Honolulu City listed him as a finisher for the Honululu Photo Supply Comp.
252 10 Pacific Crossings 252 1920 1920 Japanese Man visited Hawaii & was shocked at the intensity of anti- Japanese hostility.
252 10 Pacific Crossings   1920 1920 Japanese Man visited Hawaii & was shocked at the intensity of anti- Japanese hostility.
253 10 Pacific Crossings 253 1879 1909 Value of crops skyrocketed, from 4% to 50% of all crops were grown in California. Help came from railroad lines & refrigerated cars.
253 10 Pacific Crossings 253 1900 1910 California Japansese Farmers owned or leased 29 farms, 4,698 acres. By 1910 they owned 458,056 acres.
253 10 Pacific Crossings 253 1910 1940 Japanese farmers flourished, produced 70% of Californias strawberries,95% snap beans, 67% tomatoes,95% celery, 44% onions, 40% green peas.
253 10 Pacific Crossings 56 1879 1909 Value of crops skyrocketed, from 4% to 50% of all crops were grown in California. Help came from railroad lines & refrigerated cars.
253 10 Pacific Crossings 46 1900 1910 California Japansese Farmers owned or leased 29 farms, 4,698 acres. By 1910 they owned 458,056 acres.
253 10 Pacific Crossings   1910 1940 Japanese farmers flourished, produced 70% of Californias strawberries,95% snap beans, 67% tomatoes,95% celery, 44% onions, 40% green peas.
254 10 Pacific Crossings 254 1920 1920 Agricultural production of Japanese farms valued $67,000,000,10% of total value of California's crops.
254 10 Pacific Crossings 59 1920 1920 Agricultural production of Japanese farms valued $67,000,000,10% of total value of California's crops.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 255 1865 1865 The year Kyutaro Abiko was born, and the when his mother died.Raised by his grandparents, and was a firm beleiver that japanese imigrants succesion was in agriculture.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 255 1885 1885 Abiko departed for America, arrived in San Francisco with $1.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 255 1887 1887 Kinji Ushijima aka George Shima arrival date. Worked as a potato picker & soon became a very succesful labor contractor.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 255 1890 1890 Japanese immigrants were increasing, Abiko operated several enterprises, restaurant, laundry & newspaper.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 255 1912 1912 George Shima controled 10,00 acres of potatoes valued $500,000 & was Japanese Horotio Alger.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 255 1926 1926 George Shima died, he was known as the "Potato King", estate worth $15 Million.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 61 1865 1865 The year Kyutaro Abiko was born, and the when his mother died.Raised by his grandparents, and was a firm beleiver that japanese imigrants succesion was in agriculture.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 61 1885 1885 Abiko departed for America, arrived in San Francisco with $1.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 60 1887 1887 Kinji Ushijima aka George Shima arrival date. Worked as a potato picker & soon became a very succesful labor contractor.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 61 1890 1890 Japanese immigrants were increasing, Abiko operated several enterprises, restaurant, laundry & newspaper.
255 10 Pacific Crossings 60 1912 1912 George Shima controled 10,00 acres of potatoes valued $500,000 & was Japanese Horotio Alger.
255 10 Pacific Crossings   1926 1926 George Shima died, he was known as the "Potato King", estate worth $15 Million.
256 10 Pacific Crossings 256 1906 1906 Abiko founded the American Land & Produce Comp., purchases 3,200 acres of undeveloped desert land.
256 10 Pacific Crossings 256 1907 1907 Japanese pioneers responded to Abiko's invitation & moved to the site to settle with their families.
256 10 Pacific Crossings 256 1909 1909 Abiko returned to Japanto marry Yonako & borught her back to the US. Became farmers,to set example for Japanese.
256 10 Pacific Crossings 63 1906 1906 Abiko founded the American Land & Produce Comp., purchases 3,200 acres of undeveloped desert land.
256 10 Pacific Crossings 64 1907 1907 Japanese pioneers responded to Abiko's invitation & moved to the site to settle with their families.
256 10 Pacific Crossings 62 1909 1909 Abiko returned to Japanto marry Yonako & borught her back to the US. Became farmers,to set example for Japanese.
257 10 Pacific Crossings 257 1907 1907 Abiko's faithful followers had left the graves of their ancestors in Japan & to prepare to become the sould of their adopted land.
257 10 Pacific Crossings 257 1907 1907 "Alien Land Law", federal govt. pressured Japan to prohibit the emigration of laborers to the US.
257 10 Pacific Crossings 257 1910 1910 Japanese farmers had planted 1,064 acres of grapes, 507 acre of fruit trees, 100 acres of alfalfa & 500 acres of hay.
257 10 Pacific Crossings 257 10/14/1914 1914 Takao Ozawa filed an application for the US Citizenship. It was denied.
257 10 Pacific Crossings 64 1907 1907 Abiko's faithful followers had left the graves of their ancestors in Japan & to prepare to become the sould of their adopted land.
257 10 Pacific Crossings   1907 1907 "Alien Land Law", federal govt. pressured Japan to prohibit the emigration of laborers to the US.
257 10 Pacific Crossings 65 1910 1910 Japanese farmers had planted 1,064 acres of grapes, 507 acre of fruit trees, 100 acres of alfalfa & 500 acres of hay.
257 10 Pacific Crossings 66 10/14/1914 1914 Takao Ozawa filed an application for the US Citizenship. It was denied.
258 10 Pacific Crossings 258 1924 1924 "Aliens ineligible to citizenship", Japanese could not become citizens.
258 10 Pacific Crossings 69 1924 1924 "Aliens ineligible to citizenship", Japanese could not become citizens.
259 10 The Nisei: Americans by Birth   1920 1941 During these years the Nisei, second generation Japanese, were hoped to have a future in America. They like their parents weren't accepted either.
259 10 The Nisei: Americans by Birth 69 0/0/1920 0/0/1938? The Nisei constituted 27 percent of the United States' mainland population
259 10 The Nisei: Americans by Birth 69   8/31/1939 The Nisei constituted 63 percent of the United States' mainland population, a 56 percent increase in about 20 years
259 10 The Nisei: Americans by Birth   0/0/1920 0/0/1941? During these years the Nisei, second generation Japanese, hoped to have a future in America. They like their parents weren't accepted either.
260 10 The Nisei: Americans by Birth 72 0/0/1925 0/0/1935 Survey taken which showed only 25 percent of Nisei graduates from UCAL between 1925 and 1935 were employed in professional vocations
260 10 The Nisei: Americans by Birth 73-76 0/0/1924 ? Monica Sone, Japanese-American writer, remembers her teens and the hardships she and her family faced due to discrimination during her childhood
261 10 The Nisei: Americans by Birth   7-Dec-41 8-Dec-41 Pearl Harbor shattered the hopes of Japanese-Americans being fully welcome as US citizens.
261 10 The Nisei: Americans by Birth   7-Dec-41 12/8/1941 Pearl Harbor shattered the hopes of Japanese-Americans being fully welcome as US citizens.
262 11 Pushed by Pogroms   1880 1924 During this time, Russian Jews, felt persecuted due to "pogroms" and began to flee their country to "the garden of eden" - Amercia.
262 11 Pushed by Pogroms   0/0/1880 0/0/1924 During this time, Russian Jews, felt persecuted due to "pogroms" and began to flee their country to "the garden of eden" - Amercia.
262 11 Pushed by Pogroms   0/0/1835 0/0/1917 During this time, Jews were required to inhabit the "Pale of Settlement."Region from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Required by the Russian Empire.
263 11 Pushed by Pogroms     0/0/1879 38 percent of the Jews in the "Pale of Settlement" were employed in manufacturing/crafts which made the competition aggressive and put jobs at stake
264 11 Pushed by Pogroms     0/0/1939 One-third of all Jews in Russia and eastern Europe had emigrated, mostly to the United States
266 11 Pushed by Pogroms     0/0/1886 Emma Goldman, at 17 years old, recalls when the ship she arrived on to America pulled into port.
267 11 Pushed by Pogroms 11 0/0/1881 0/0/1912 This generation of Jewish-Russian immigrants can be called the heroic generation because they had the courage to turn America into their home
267 11 Pushed by Pogroms 12 0/0/1908 0/0/1912 The "heroic generation" who came were highly educated: 80% of the men and 63% of the women were literate
267 11 Pushed by Pogroms 12 0/0/1908 0/0/1912 Two-thirds of the Jews were skilled workers compared to only 16 percent of Italian immigrants
267 11 A Shtetl in America     0/0/1905 The Lower East Side of New York, was populated with half a million Jews
268 11 A Shtetl in America 15   0/0/1900 The Lower East Side became the most densely populated area in New York city
279 11 Daughters of the Colony   1909 1920s? Women regain the strength of might, be sticking their heads out for each other and finally making their stand in the world.
279 11 Daughters of the Colony 43 1909 1910 New York industry strike, women complained they wanted high paying wages, and make 49 hour work weeks.
279 11 Daughters of the Colony   1909 1920 Mass organizational campaigns swept through to garment trades, changing a largely, unorganized industry into a strong hold of unions.
279 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 44   1920 One-hundred and seventy thousands workers belonged to the International Ladies’ Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.It was beginning to be a women success.
280 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 47 1860 1914 Jews became Americans through “purification” process of leaning the ways to live and be like the Americans.Learn the ways the average American dresses, eat, etc.
282 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 50   1910 Jews began to change their names to make them more American, not only their last names but also changed their first names as well.
283 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 52 1899 1930s? Jewish husbands would send their wives and children to small cottages outside of the city because keeping them there was way too expensive.
284 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 54 1907 1908 Government conducted a study and found that only 8 percent of Jewish-Russian wives had incomes, when Italian wives had an average of 17 percent of wives had incomes.
285 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 56   1911 56 percent of Jewish women had structured jobs.Family businesses, or found themselves pushing push-carts around.It was looked down upon to be a married woman with a job.
285 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 58   1915 Jewish parents set goals for their children.They wanted them in white collar jobs making good money
285 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 59 1910 1925 Daughters of the families had an average of 40% of the family’s incomes.They worked to save money to send their brothers to dental school, art school, and engineering courses.
285 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 59   1910 A survey was done showing that more Jews above the age of 16 of any other ethnic group that is still in school and getting an education.
286 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 60   1916 Jewish students maintained the majority of college campuses during this time, 44 percent at Hunter College and 73 percent at City College.
286 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 60   1920 There was 20 percent of Jews attending Harvard University, which was a prestige school than and still is currently, very intelligent.
286 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 62   29/03/1992 A representative from Harvard from the Board of Overseers stated that it was easier to teach Jews because they did not have a background of America and they were diligent students.
287 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 64 1920 1939 Harvard University set began the decline on accepting Jews into their school, 10 to 16 percent of freshmen were denied just because of their race.
287 11 Up from "Greenhorns"     1924 Congress passed a law of restrictionist immigration act. Law reduced the immigration of Jews into America from southern and eastern Europe.
287 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 66   1925 This strict congress law largely reduced the immigration rate of Jews, greatly.
288 11 Up from "Greenhorns"     1882 The New York Tribune reported that Jews are dirty and made many American citizens want to move away because of the filth of the Jewish immigrants.
288 11 Up from "Greenhorns" 68 1920 1929 Henry Ford led an anti-Semitic campaign against international Jews. Believed they were taking over our financial business and will own most business in ten years.
289 11 3 69 1923 1923 Horace Kallen observes that Jews are not wanted in undergraduate society
289 11 3 69 1936 1936 Jewish-American Columbia U. lit Professor told by chairman "a Freudian, a Marxist, and a Jew" could not be "at our kind of institution."
289 11 3 71 1920's ? 1920's? Over 100,000 Jews left Lower East Side and spread into the Bronx and Brooklyn
290 11 3 72 1925 1925 Young married people move to outlying districts of Bronx and Brooklyn
290 11 3 73 1920's ? 1920's? Percentage of NY Jews living in neighborhoods at least 40% Jewish increased from 54 to 72%
293 12 3 4 1914 1914 American reporter writes about vast number of Mexicans in South Texas
293 12 3 6 1910 19xx? Mexican Revolution forces 10s of thousands of people to flee north
294 12 3 8 1895 1895 Mexican International Railroad extends line 900 miles into Mexico, linking with Texas
294 12 3 8 1904 1904 Mexican newspaper reports full trains everyday bringing Mexicans to work on US railroad lines
294 12 3 8 1916 1916 LA Times reports on number of trains carrying Mexican workers being employed by labor agents
295 12 3 10 1900 1930 Mexican population in Southwest rises from 375,000 to 1,160,000
295 12 3 13 1908 1908 Researcher find Mexicans do mostly excavating, road building, and other public works jobs
296 12 3 13 1928 1928 Texas official estimates Mexicans compose about 75% of all construction labor in state
296 12 3 14 1918 1918 In LA, 70% of Mexicans were unskilled bluecollar workers
296 12 3 14 1929 1929 Journalist observes in many communities Mexicans do the common labor and are imported to do so
296 12 3 14 1920 1920 In El Paso, 5% of Mexicans were in professional and managerial occupations
296 12 3 14 1900 1930 Mexican heahds of households in Santa Barbara still had same jobs in time period
297 12 3 16 1907 1907 Farmers turn to Mexican labor after Gentlemen's Agreement excludes Asian labor
297 12 3 16 1924 1924 Farmers turn to Mexican labor after Immigration Act excludes Asian labor
297 12 3 17 1920's ? 19xx? At least 3/4 of CA's 200,000 farm workers were Mexican
309 12 El Norte   Late 1800s Early 1900s Immigrants from Mexico helped each other for early survival. Mexican culture was brought to California and Mexicans continued to indulge in their native foods such as tortillas, and hold on to their traditions.
310 12 El Norte 54 1900 1930 Immigrants from Mexico helped each other for early survival. Mexican culture was brought to California and Mexicans continued to indulge in their native foods such as tortillas, and hold on to their traditions.
311 13 Blacks in the Urban North   1910 1920 Between 1910 and 1920, the black population in the North increased by 163,800 people.
311 13 Blacks in the Urban North 2 1910 1920 Between 1910 and 1920, the black population in the North increased by 163,800 people.
313 13     1914 1918 World War I cut off the flow of European immigrants, reducing the numbers from 1,200,000 in 1914 to only 110,000 in 1918.
313 13 Blacks in the Urban North 5 1914 1918 World War I cut off the flow of European immigrants, reducing the numbers from 1,200,000 in 1914 to only 110,000 in 1918.
314 13         Early 1900s, Blacks and Mexicans challenged each other for jobs that paid $1.50 a day.
314 13 Blacks in the Urban North 6 1900 1930 Early 1900s, Blacks and Mexicans challenged each other for jobs that paid $1.50 a day.
318 13       1930 By 1930, some two million blacks had migrated to the cities of the North and changed the course of history.
318 13 Blacks in the Urban North 16 1900 1930 By 1930, some two million blacks had migrated to the cities of the North and changed the course of history.
319 13 The Crucible of the City     1900 Chicago had a black population of only 30,000
319 13 The Crucible of the City     1900? Only one ward in the entire city was 25% black, while 19 out of 35 wards were about .5% black
319 13 The Crucible of the City     1920 Black population jumped to 109,000, concentrated in the predominantly black neighborhoods of the South Side
319 13 The Crucible of the City     1917 Chicago Real Estate Board: southern blacks were "pouring into Chicago at the rate of 10,000 a month" ; influx would decrease property values
319 13 The Crucible of the City     1918 Kenwood and Hyde Park Property Owners' Association urged whites not to sell or rent to blacks
320 13 The Crucible of the City     1910 Over 60% of the women were domestic servants or laundresses; close to half of all employed men worked as porters, servants, waiters and janitors
320 13 The Crucible of the City     1904 Managers used black men as scabs during the 1904 stockyards strike
320 13 The Crucible of the City     1905 Black men used as scabs during the teamsters strike
320 13 The Crucible of the City     1920 Majority of black men were employed in factories rather than domestic and personal services
320 13 The Crucible of the City     1920 15% of women had become factory operatives; eager to get out of domestic work
322 13 The Crucible of the City     1917 Bombs destroyed the homes of serveral black families
322 13 The Crucible of the City     1918 A letter warned black tenants "We are going to BLOW these FLATS TO HELL…" if they didn't relocate ASAP
322 13 The Crucible of the City     1918? Three bombs went off in the neighborhood
322 13 The Crucible of the City     1919 Several bombings were aimed at the offices of real estate agents who had sold homes to blacks in white neighborhoods
322 13 The Crucible of the City     21-Jun-19 White hoodlums killed two black men because they wanted to "get a nigger"
322 13 The Crucible of the City     Jul-14 White gangs threatened to "get all the niggers on the Fourth of July"
322 13 The Crucible of the City     27-Jul-19 Eugene Williams drifted to white side of beach and drowned. Rumors started and general rioting broke out, leaving 2 people dead, over 50 injured
322 13 The Crucible of the City     28-Jul-19 Blacks were dragged from streetcars on their way home from work and were assaulted by white mobs
323 13 The Crucible of the City   27-Jul-19 Aug-14 23 blacks and 15 whites were killed, while 342 blacks and 178 whites were injured
323 13 The Crucible of the City     1790 Blacks constituted nearly a third of the population living in Harlem
323 13 The Crucible of the City     1890 Harlem had become predominantly white and wealthy
324 13 The Crucible of the City     1913 Long time white resident of Harlem complained that the section had been "…devastated as a result of the steady influx of Negroes"
324 13 The Crucible of the City     1914 Some 50,000 Negroes lived in Harlem
324 13 The Crucible of the City   1920 1930 118,792 whites left the neighborhood, while 87,417 blacks arrived
324 13 The Crucible of the City     1925 Population density was 336 persons per acre compared to only 223 for Manhattan as a whole
324 13 The Crucible of the City     1925? Blacks forced to pay higher rents, spending approx. 33% of income on rent, compared to 20% for working-class whites
325 13 The Crucible of the City     1916 Marcus Garvey arrived in Harlem: "Up, you mighty race…you can accomplish what you will"
326 13 Black Pride in Harlem     1914 Garvey returned to Jamaica, where he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) to unite all the "Negro peoples of the world" and establish a black nation in Africa
326 13 Black Pride in Harlem     1916 Garvey decided to relocate the base for his movement in Harlem
326 13 Black Pride in Harlem     1920s Garvey's organization had 9,000 members in Chicago, 6,000 in Philadelphia and Cincinnati, 4,000 in Detroit and over 30,000 in New York
327 13 Black Pride in Harlem     1920s? Garvey urged blacks to take out shares in the Black Star Line, Inc.; some 40,000 blacks bought 155,510 shares amounting to three quarters of a million dollars
327 13 Black Pride in Harlem     1922 Garvey was arrested, charged with using the mails to defraud by advertising and selling stock for a nonexistent ship; found guilty, sentenced to 5 years in prison
329 13 Black Pride in Harlem   1902 1967 Langston Hughes was an influtential poet during the Harlem Renissance, wrote about the struggles of African American decent assimilating into a white culture.
329 13 Black Pride in Harlem   1924 1924 The Negro Speaks of Rivers poem was written by Hughes symbolizing the rivers of the continents between American and African Americans.
330 13 Black Pride in Harlem   1921 1924 Jean Toomer taught in blacks in Georgia in order to help struggles between the colors
330 13 Black Pride in Harlem   1924 1925 Toomer goes toFrance in order to search for own identity
331 13 Black Pride in Harlem   1925 1930 Toomer returns to Harlem, NY and began giving lectures
331 13 Black Pride in Harlem   1927 1937 Zora Neale Hurston studied at Barnard College, before moving to the South in order to research white and black relationships.
331 13 Black Pride in Harlem   1937 1937 Zora Neale Hurston published her book "Their Eyes Were Watching God" emphasizing the degrees of the racial problems
332 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1920 1930 Harlem became a slum, African Americans hit extreme poverty
333 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1932 1932 Harlems black population resulted in 50% unemployed after the Great Crash in 1929
333 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1932 1932 Kelley Miller was a sociologist and described a black man the last to be hired.
333 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   Oct-33 1933 Statistics showed that 10 percent of whites where laid off, but 18% of blacks were laid off.
333 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1930 1938 The New Deal was not designed to help blacks, causing a shift from supporting the Republican Party to the Democratic party.
333 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   12-May-33 1938 The Agricultural Adjustment Administration gave white farmers higher rates than blacks showing the unfair advantage white farmers had to blacks
333 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1933 1935 National Recovery Administration did not support blacks, however supported non discrimination on whites with wages.
334 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1935 1935 The Position of the Negro in the Present Economic Crisis showed that blacks were dissapointed in the economics under Roosevelt
334 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1909 27-Aug-63 WEB Du Bois was prominent figure who wanted intergration however during the Great Depression he promoted that African Americans stay together in order to survive.
334 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1933 193 John J Lewis was leaderof United Mine Workers, campaigned black workers into union by employing blacks with equal pay adopted by the Committee for Industrial Organization
334 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1933 1937 Phillip Murray led the Steel Workers Organizing Committee when it announced racial equality in Union membership
335 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1941 1941 United Auto Workers, urged blacks to join work force to opose racial discrimination
335 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   1937 Present day The Public Works Administration prohibited racial discrimination and allowed to participate in programs
335 13 "But a Few Pegs to Fall": The Great Depression   3-Nov-36 3-Nov-36 Presidential Election- 3/4ths of northern blacked votes for FDR and beame prominent in the Democratic coalition.
339 Part 4 Transformations 1   1903 W.E.B. Du Bois wrote The Souls of Black Folk.
339 Part 4 Transformations 1 1939 1945 World War II - America is forced to confront the problem of the twenieth century, the problem of the color line.
339 Part 4 Transformations 2   1942 Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race is published, a novel written by Ashley Montagu about WWII
339 Part 4 Transformations 2   1943 The Races of Mankind, written by Ruth Benedict, denounces racism as unscientific and urges the US to "clean its own house" and "stand unashamed before the Nazis…"
340 Part 4 Transformations 3   1941 The New York Times editorializes One Nation Divisible: Class, Race and Ethnicity in the United States
341 14 WWII American Dilemmas 1   1/6/1941 Franklin D. Roosevelt issues "The Four Freedoms", Address to Congress in Washington D.C.
341 14 WWII American Dilemmas 2   12/7/1941 Japanese plans drop bombs on the ships anchored at the US naval base of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
341 14 WWII American Dilemmas 2   12/8/1941 President Roosevelt announces Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War Against Japan at Presidential Library and Museum.
342 14 WWII American Dilemmas 5   3/13/1942 President Roosevelt approved a recommendation for the evacuation of Japanese from Hawaii to the mainland. Commission on Wartime Relocation, Personal Justice Denied.
343 14 WWII American Dilemmas 8   1/4/1942 Lieutenant General DeWitt declares military necessity justified exclusion of all Japanese living in the US
344 14 WWII American Dilemmas 11   4/30/1942 Under General DeWitt's command, the military posted an orderunder theprovisions of the "Civilian Exclusion Order". Commission on Wartime Relocation, Personal Justice Denied.
347 14 WWII American Dilemmas 19   9/1/1942 The Selective Service classified all young Japanese men as enemy aliens.
347 14 WWII American Dilemmas 19   10/1/1942 Director of the Office of War Information urged Roosevelt to authorize the enlistment of American-born Japanese into the Army and Navy
347 14 WWII American Dilemmas 19   2/1/1943 Pres Roosevelt wrote to the Secretary of War Stimson that no loyal citizen of the US should be denied the right to exercise the responsibilities of his citizenship regardless of ancestry.
348 14 WWII American Dilemmas 22 9/1/1943 4/1/1945 Japanese-American soldiers help win the war in Europe.A Pictorial History of the Japanese American 100th Infantry Battalion and the 442th Regimental Combat Team.
349 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 1 Jun-43 Jun-43 The 100th Battalion merged with the newly arrived 442nd Regimental Combat Team, composed of Japanese Americans from Hawaii as well as from the internment camps on the mainland
349 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 2 Apr-45 Apr-45 Japanese American soldiers assaulted German troops on Mount Nebbione.
349 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 3 Jul-15-46 Jul-15-46 After the war, on the lawn of the White House, President Harry Truman welcomed home the Nisei soldiers of the 442nd.
350 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 4 1940 1940 The President, FDR, signed the Selective Service Act, which included a provision that prohibited intermingling between "colored and white" army personnel in the same regiments.
351 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 5 Oct-9-40 Oct-9-40 The Crisis carried the headline: "White House Blesses Jim Crow"
353 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 6 Apr-20-44 Apr-20-44 When General Ira C. Aeker, commanding officer of the Mediterranean Air Force, inspected the 99th Pursuit Squadron.
355 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 7 1941 1941 At a meeting in Chicago, a black woman called for a mass demonstration in Washington.
355 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 8 Jun-18-41 Jun-18-41 At the White House Roosevelt met with civil rights leaders, including Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
355 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 9 Jul-1-41 Jul-1-41 The March on Washington was scheduled for this day.
356 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 10 1942 Nov-44 Percent of black defense workers went from 3% to 8.3%.
356 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 11 1940 1944 Percentage of black women in industry increased from 6.5% to 18% of the female workforce and the numbers in Detroit's factories rose sharply from 14,451 to 46,750.
357 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 12 1940 1944 The proportion of black women employed in housecleaning declined from 60% to 45%.
357 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 13 1943 1943 At the height of industrial production for the war, urban race riots exploded across the country - 242 racial battles in 47 cities.
357 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 14 1940 1943 Half a million people, including more than 50,000 blacks moved into Detroit.
358 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 15 Mar-5-42 Mar-5-42 In a "Special Report on Negro Housing Situation in Detroit," marked "Confidential," the federal government's Office of Facts and Figures had noted the escalating racial antagonisms in Detroit.
358 Part 4 WWII: American Dilemmas 16 1943 1943 "Hell" was let loose that summer, when Detroit exploded in fire and violence as white and black mobs attacked each other.
359 14 Chinese Americans     12/7/1941 Lonnie Quan remebering the bomb dropped on Pearl harbor.
359 14 Chinese Americans     12/8/1941 US and Repulic of China delcare war on Japan
360 14 Chinese Americans   1942 1942 Many Chinese-American women have become defense industry as office workers.
360 14 Chinese Americans   1943 1943 Chinese Press nots that are approximately 100 Chinese working at the three plants in Santa Monic, Long Beach, and El Segundo
361 14 Chinese Americans   1943 1943 Congress considered bill to repeal the Chinese exclusion laws and allow a quota for Chinese immigration.
361 14 Chinese Americans     10/1/1943 Teddy Roosevelt says China is our ally.
362 14 Mexican Americans     9/29/1942 1500 braceros were brought to California
362 14 Mexican Americans   1943 1943 Half a million Mexican American enlist in the military.
364 14 Mexican Americans   1942 1942 4000 recruited workers in US
364 14 Mexican Americans   1943 1943 52000 recruited workers in US
364 14 Mexican Americans   1944 1944 Harvested $432 million of crops
364 14 Mexican Americans   1944 1944 The number of Mexicans in shipyards in Los Angeles went from 0 to 17000
364 14 Mexican Americans   1944 1944 62000 recruited workers in US
364 14 Mexican Americans   1945 1945 120000 recruited workers in US
364 14 Mexican Americans   1947 1947 200000 recruited workers in US
365 14 Mexican Americans   1942 1942 Margarita Salazar quits her job and begins to work for the defense.
376 14 Native Americans   1943 1943 Navajos enlist.
379 14 Jewish Americans: A Deafening Silence   00/00/1930 00/00/1935? Zionist organization of America is dying down
379 14 Jewish Americans: A Deafening Silence   00/00/1929 00/00/1929? Zionist organization of America has a membership of 18,000
379 14 Jewish Americans: A Deafening Silence   00/00/1939 00/00/1939? Zionist Organization of America jumps to 52,000 members
379 14 Jewish Americans: A Deafening Silence   00/00/1945 00/00/1945 Zionist Organization of America rises to 136,000 members
379 14 Jewish Americans: A Deafening Silence   00/00/1947 00/00/1947 General assembly of th United Nations schedules a vote on the proposal to partition Palestine into a jewish and arab state
380 14 Jewish Americans: A Deafening Silence   3/18/1948 3/18/1948 A meeting between Chaim Weizmann and Truman occurs, leading the partition to move forward
380 14 Jewish Americans: A Deafening Silence   5/14/1948 5/14/1948 British withdraw from Palestine, and Israel is formed
380 14 A Holocaust Called Hiroshima   4/12/1945 4/12/1945 President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies and Harry S. Truman becomes president. Truman reveals that he is shocked at the presidents death, and worries that he is not strong enough to handle the job.
381 14 A Holocaust Called Hiroshima   Jul-45 7/1/1945 President Truman expresses his hatred for the Japanese
381 14 A Holocaust Called Hiroshima   7/18/1945 7/18/1945 President Truman tells Churchill of a telegram from the Japanese emperor asking for peace
382 14 A Holocaust Called Hiroshima   26-Jul 7/26/2010 Truman issues an ultimatum to Japan that they must surrender or face an atomic attack.
382 14 A Holocaust Called Hiroshima   26-Jul 7/26/2010 Atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima
382 14 A Holocaust Called Hiroshima   9-Aug 8/9/2010 Atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki
382 14 A Holocaust Called Hiroshima   10-Aug 8/10/2010 Japan Surrenders
384 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1923 00/00/1923 Ermalinda Murillo and her family move fromJalisco, Mexico to Chicago
384 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1942 00/00/1942 Helen Pon Onyett enlists in the Army Nurse Corps
384 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1971 00/00/1971 Onyett is promoted to colonel
385 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1948 00/00/1948 A. Philip Randolph demands that African americans are not to serve in segregated armed forces.
385 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1948 00/00/1948 Supreme Court overrules the law which prohibited Japanese from owning land
386 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1952 00/00/1952 Congress rescinded the white only restriction of the 1790 Naturalization Law
386 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1965 00/00/1965 46,000 Japanese immigrants have gained citizenship
386 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1988 00/00/1988 Congress passed a bill proviing an apology and a paymentof 20,000 dollars to the survivors of the internment camps
387 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1948 00/00/1948 Mexican American veterans founded the American GI forumin Corpus Christi, Texas
388 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1946 00/00/1946 There was a case of Mendez vs. West Minster school district of Orange County in which California declares segregation of Mexican Children illegal
388 15 Rising Winds for Social Justice   00/00/1954 00/00/1954 Thurgood Marshall presented legal argument against the separate but equal doctrine.
389 15 Out of the War 389   Dec. 1, 1955 Rosa Parks boarded bus in section reserved for whites and ordered to back of the bus when it became full.
390 15 Out of the War 390   May-54 Supreme Court decision to integrate schools; spearheaded by Martin Luther King Jr.
391 15 Out of the War 391   1960 Sit in at Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was formed.
392 15 Out of the War 392   Aug. 28, 1963 March on Washington where hundreds of thousands gathered at the Lincoln Memorial demanding racial justice.
393 15 Out of the War 393   1964 Freedom Summer of 1964 where whites were involved in civil rights movement and went to organize voter registration in South.
395 15 Out of the War 395   1964 Congress prohibited discrimination in public accomodations and employment and established Fair Employment Opportunity Commission.
395 15 Out of the War 395   1966 Stokely Carmichael and other young militant blacks issued a clarion for Black Power. Viewed racial oppression as "internal colonialism."
396 15 Out of the War 396   Summer 1965 Got heated especially in Los Angeles. Fire bombs of Watts blastedcivil rights in new phase
397 15 Out of the War 397   1963 MLK Jr. is quoted as mentioning the poor environments the poor are living in.
397 15 Out of the War 397   1964 MLK declared "I don't see any American dream…I see an American nightmare."
397 15 Out of the War 397 1960 1982 Percentage of families earning $25k or more increased from 10% in 1960 to 25% in 1982.
397 15 Out of the War 397 1970 1980 Number of blacks in college nearly doubled in this decade (522,000 to over 1 million)
397 15 Out of the War 397 1960 1980 Percentage of black female-headed families nearly doubled to 40% compared to an increase of 8-12% in white families.
398 15 Out of the War 398   1980 71% of African-Americans lived in central cities, while 66% whites lived in suburbs.
399 15 Out of the War   1969 1976 The "Deindustriliazation of America" occurred when 22 million Americans lost their jobs because production was redirected to low-wage countries such as Mexico and South Korea. Blacks suffered most considering they worked in automobile and steel industries.
399 15 Out of the War   1960 1970 Rocked by a shrinking manufacturing sector, plant closings, and migration of jobs overseas, organized labor was also hurt by the general social upheaval of the 1960s. Many young production workers began to see unions' (particularly the AFL-CIO's) support of the Vietnam War and slowness to support rights of African-Americans as reactionary
399 15 Out of the War   1970? 1979? Imported foreign steel was generally cheaper than domestically produced steel.
399 15 Out of the War   1982 1988 Bethlehem, a major U.S. steel manufacturing company, reported a loss of $1.5 billion and shut down many of its operations. Profitability returned briefly restructuring and shutdowns continued through the 1990's.
399 15 Out of the War   1975 1978 2,380 firm were shut down in Illinois. Although blacks constituted 14% of tate's workforce, 20% were laid off workers
399 15 Out of the War   1979 1984 A mere 42% of laid-off black workers during this time frame were able to find a new employment.
399 15 Out of the War   1980 1989 Minimum wage was $3.10-$5-90.
399 15 Out of the War 399 1969 1976 22 million American workers lost their jobs due to deindustrialization of America.
399 15 Out of the War 399   1983 Jimmy Morse volunatarily retired, who worked in U.S. Steel in Gary, Indiana for 30 years. Did this to avoid forced layoff.
399 15 Out of the War 399 1975 1978 Blacks constituted 14% of workforce and totaled 20% of laidoff laborers.
399 15 Out of the War   1979 1984 Only 42% were able to secure jobs and became "truly disadvantaged."
400 15 Out of the War   29-Apr-92 29-Apr-92 Police officer's were found not guilty in Las Angeles when assaulting a black motorist, Rodney King. The public was outraged and governor called for 6,000 National Guard troops.52 deaths, 2,499 injuries, 6599 arrests
400 15 Out of the War   0/0/1965 1990 The nation was moving towards a more multiethnic future with Asians, Hispanics and other various cultural and ethnic groups. America was no longer "black and white."
401 15 Out of the War   29-Apr-92 29-Apr-92 Many Asians such as Koreans began facing discrimination. Many shops owned by Asians were burned to the ground.
402 15 Out of the War   0/0/1992 1992 CBS 60 Minutes presented an episode honoring the success of Asian-Americans. This developed resentment between Asians and African-American's because they had been struggling to be accepted for so long among the white community.
403 15 Out of the War   1995 1995 Governor Pete Wilson, Republican nominee for presidency, of California announced opposition to affirmative action. He considered it "preferential treatment" for blacks.
403 15 Out of the War   1996 1996 In Wilson's election with 'Proposition 209,' he got 54% positive votes.
403 15 Out of the War   1980 1987 Under the Reagan administration, strategic nuclear weapons programs were financed by major deficits. Spending on defense began at 40 cents and increased to 60 cents out of every U.S. dollar from Federal Government income tax.
403 15 Out of the War   1985 1981 As funding for defense grew, other important programs such as food stamps and welfare were significantly cut. Research and development for nuclear weaponry continued to damage the U.S.'s economy.
403 15 Out of the War   1955 1990 The federal government spent more than $1 trillion on nuclear arms and other weaponry for the cold war-62% of all federal research expenditures.
404 15 Out of the War   1990 1993 A peace dividend was provided after the Cold War. This allowed the U.S. to finally cut back on defense and a nuclear arm's race and focus on consumer goods and the economy again.
404 15 Out of the War   1990 1990 The New York Times stated that after the Cold war it was as if the U.S. "won the lottery," because they defended the free world and then enhanced their economy.
404 15 Out of the War   2000 2000 U.S. was in an era of economic expansion and was able to meet many research needs since the government had educated and supported an astounding amount of engineers and scientists.
404 15 Out of the War   2000 2000 Those who were trained engineers and scientists of the Cold War used their skills to help the economy by aiding in the research/development of consumer goods.
404 15 Out of the War     11-Sep-01 Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center occurred.
406 15 Again, the "Tempest-Tost"   3/1/1990 0/0/1995 Collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and Russia. Increase of immigration from these areas to the U.S.
406 15 Again, the "Tempest-Tost"   1990 1990 America experiences "decivilization" because refugees fleeting religious oppression immigrated. Traditional conflicts bloomed exactly as they had 45 years ago
406 15 Again, the "Tempest-Tost"   1960? 1980? Jews, even those that did not strongly identify with their Jewish beliefs or religions, encountered hatred from fellow citizens. Children were beaten and called names.
406 15 Again, the "Tempest-Tost"   1990 1993? Employment in Ireland staggered 18%. There were over 120,000 undocumented Irish workers in the U.S. due to immigration.
407 15 Again, the "Tempest-Tost"   1986 1986 Immigration Reform Act was established declaring that made it unlawful for employers to higher undocumented workers. It created economic and social borders.
408 15 Again, the "Tempest-Tost"   1990 1990 New immigration law provided distribution of 40,000 Green Cards awarded by lottery, 16,000 specifically for Irish workers.
408 15 Again, the "Tempest-Tost"   Feb-14 Feb-14 There was a rally in San Francisco, CA where Mexican Americans and Irish newcomers demanded comprehensive immigration reform that would allow them o become legalized.
408 15 Again, the "Tempest-Tost"   1965 1965 Congress legislated the removal of all restrictions to Asian immigration.
409 16empest-Tost From a "Teeming Shore": Russia, Ireland, and China   1960 1980 Between these 20 years, the Chinese population in America jumped from 237,000 to 812,200
409 16empest-Tost From a "Teeming Shore": Russia, Ireland, and China   1965 1965 Congress passed the immigration law abolished the Natural Origins Formula, whose goal was to maintain the existing ethnic composition of the United States.
409 16empest-Tost From a "Teeming Shore": Russia, Ireland, and China   1960 1969 "During the 1960s, Chinese students flocked to the United States to pursue their education."
409 16empest-Tost From a "Teeming Shore": Russia, Ireland, and China   1980 1980 "Half of the 300,000 foreign students here were from China and other Asian countries."
410 16empest-Tost From a "Teeming Shore": Russia, Ireland, and China   1980 1989 During the 1980s, there was a major source of labor for New York's garment industry.Chinese women porduced almost half the manufactured apparel.
410 16empest-Tost From a "Teeming Shore": Russia, Ireland, and China   1976 1976 Wah Tom Wing arrived here and went to work on the assembly line.She is taking a step backwards because she has a college degree.
410 16empest-Tost From a "Teeming Shore": Russia, Ireland, and China   1968 1968 Chinese couple, one being a biology professor, other an architect in the People's Republic of China, experienced underemployment in America.
411 16empest-Tost From a "Teeming Shore": Russia, Ireland, and China   1990 1999 "In 1990s, Wei-Chi Poon became head of the Asian American Studies Library of the University of California at Berkeley."
411 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1954 1954 World War II ended when French forces were defeated at the battle of Dien Bien Phu.
411 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1956 1956 French and Vietnam signed agreement at Geneva that provided for a temporary partition of Vietnam at the Seventeenth Parallel and for an all-Vietnamese election.
412 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1964 1964 President Johnson asked Congress to give him war powers in the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
412 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1975 1975 Wave of Vietnamese came to America, but not out of choice.They were driven out by the powerful events.Most were military personnel and family.
412 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   29-Apr-75 29-Apr-75 Collapse of the South Vietnamese government.15,000 people fled one week beforehand.
412 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   30-Apr-75 30-Apr-75 86,000 Vietnamese fled from Saigon.
412 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   Early 1960s Early 1960s US involvement in the conflict began to expand significantly when President Kennedy sent speical forces to Vietnam.
413 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1975 1975 "130,000 Vietnamese refugees found sanctuary in the United States
413 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1975 1975 Refugees placed in processing camps like Pendleton in California and Fort Chaffee in Arkansas.
414 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1977 1979 21,000 more Vietnamese escaped from Saigon in 1977, 106,500 more in 1978, over 150,000 in 1979.
414 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1979 1979 Military conflict broke out between Vietnam and China
414 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1985 1985 643,200 Vietnamese living in the United States.
415 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   Apr-75 Apr-75 Loan Vo Le fled from Saigon."I feel like a Vietnamese American, but inside I'm still Vietnamese."Wanted to return home.
416 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1981 1983 Winnie Che began working as a witress to take out loans for a family.In 1983, she opened a restaurant, the Little Sai-Gon.
417 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1988 1988 City council of West Minister designated the area along Bolsa Avenue from Magnolia to Bushard as "Little Saigon."
418 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1988 1988 Vietnamese constitued 10% of San Jose's population, reoprted T.T. Nhu.
418 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   1982 1982 Vietnamese immigrants enter under the Orderly Departure Program, which encourages family reunification by allowing 20,000 Vietnamese to enter America annually.
418 16empest-Tost Dragon's Teeth of Fire: Vietnam   2000 2000 Vietnamese-American population totaled 1,388,000.
418 16empest-Tost Wars of Terror: Afghanistan   1973 1973 The Muslim country became a republic when Mohammed Daoud Khan staged a coup and forced King Zahir Shah into exile.
418 16empest-Tost Wars of Terror: Afghanistan   1979 1979 Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and installed procommunist Babrak Karmal as the new leader.
429 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost”   Early 2000s 2006 In 2006, in order to stop the flow of illegal immigrants from Mexico, President Bush sent six thousand National Guard troops to the border.
429           Since early 1900s, the number of border patrol agents doubled. In the Early 1980s, half of all undocumented migrants returned home with a year of entering the U.S.; By 2000, only 25 percent did.
429           A 2006 report of the Public Policy Institute of California pointed out that many illegal immigrants pay social security taxes but never collect benefits.
429 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost” 59 2001 2006 In 2006, in order to stop the flow of illegal immigrants from Mexico, President Bush sent six thousand National Guard troops to the border.
429 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost” 59 Early 1900s 2008 Since early 1900s, the number of border patrol agents doubled. In the Early 1980s, half of all undocumented migrants returned home with a year of entering the U.S.; By 2000, only 25 percent did.
429 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost” 61 1930 2006 A 2006 report of the Public Policy Institute of California pointed out that many illegal immigrants pay social security taxes but never collect benefits.
430       1982 1986 Immigration Law required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to certain illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, 1982 and had resided there continuously
430           made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants (immigrants who do not possess lawful work authorization)
430         1/1/1982 granted a path towards legalization to certain agricultural seasonal workers and immigrants who had been continuously and illegally present in the United States since January 1, 1982
430 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost” 62 1982 1986 Immigration Law required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to certain illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, 1982 and had resided there continuousl; 1896 Immigration Law
430 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost” 62 1986 1986 1986Immigration Law made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants (immigrants who do not possess lawful work authorization), 1986 Immigration Law
430 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost” 62 1986 2008 granted a path towards legalization to certain agricultural seasonal workers and immigrants who had been continuously and illegally present in the United States since January 1, 1982
432 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost”     2007 June 2007, the San Francisco Chronicle reported that Latinos have the lowest level of education of any racial group in the state. One in seven graduates attends college, although they represent 48 percent of all high school students.
432 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost” 65 2007 2007 June 2007, the San Francisco Chronicle reported that Latinos have the lowest level of education of any racial group in the state. One in seven graduates attends college, although they represent 48 percent of all high school students.
433 16 Again, The “Tempest-Tost” 68 2000 2006 2006 U.S. Census figures, 70 percent of California’s Mexican population are U.S. citizens; half of the 460,766 Mexican immigrants who became naturalized citizens between 2000 and 2006 were in California.
434 17 We Will All Be Minorities Unavailable   0/06/1997 June 1997, The narrator is invited write a speech on race for President Clinton.
435 17       1997 June 1997, The narrator is invited write a speech on race for President Clinton.
435 17 We Will All Be Minorities Unavailable 1967 1997 30 years prior, separate but equal was the issue; present day is the separation of many Americas.








Last Updated on Wednesday, 12 November 2014 10:10  

Statistics

Content View Hits : 1312888

Get Green Energy, Cut Costs

Green Clean Energy at Lower Cost
For your home or apartment
 
Green Energy, reduce costs

Click here, enter zip code
to check rates. Enroll Online.